SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS)

SQL Database

A Relational Database is a digital database whose organization is based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.1 The various software systems used to maintain relational databases are known as a relational database management system (RDBMS). Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) as the language for querying and maintaining the database.1

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data where there are relations between different entities/variables of the data. SQL offers two main advantages over older read/write APIs like ISAM or VSAM: first, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command; and second, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index.2

Relational Database Servers

  • MariaDB
  • SQLite
  • LibreOffice Base
  • PostgreSQL
  • Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS)
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MariaDB : MariaDB Community Server is the open source relational database loved by developers all over the world.
  • MySQL : MySQL Community Edition is the freely downloadable version of the world's most popular open source database.
  • PostgreSQL : PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system that uses and extends the SQL language combined with many features that safely store and scale the most complicated data workloa
  • SQLite : SQLite is a C-language library that implements a small, fast, self-contained, high-reliability, full-featured, SQL database engine.


An Introduction to Database Systems An Introduction to Database Systems - An Introduction to Database Systems provides a comprehensive introduction to the now very large field of database systems by providing a solid grounding in the foundations of database technology while shedding some light on how the field is likely to develop in the future. This new edition has been rewritten and expanded to stay current with database system trends.
Joe Celko's Data and Databases: Concepts in Practice Joe Celko's Data and Databases: Concepts in Practice - Do you need an introductory book on data and databases? If the book is by Joe Celko, the answer is yes. Data and Databases: Concepts in Practice is the first introduction to relational database technology written especially for practicing IT professionals. If you work mostly outside the database world, this book will ground you in the concepts and overall framework you must master if your data-intensive projects are to be successful. If you're already an experienced database programmer, administrator, analyst, or user, it will let you take a step back from your work and examine the founding principles on which you rely every day-helping you to work smarter, faster, and problem-free.


  • C.J. Date has a stature that is unique within the database industry. C.J. is a prolific writer, and is well-known for his best-selling textbook: An Introduction to Database Systems (Addison Wesley). C.J. is an exceptionally clear-thinking writer who can lay out principles and theory in a way easily understood by his audience.3
  • Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.4
  • Joe Celko is an American relational database expert from Austin, Texas. He has participated on the ANSI X3H2 Database Standards Committee, and helped write the SQL-89 and SQL-92 standards. He is the author of a Morgan-Kaufmann series of books on SQL, and over 1200 published articles on SQL and other database topics. He had been a full-time statistician for several years.5
  • The History of SQL Standards


  • DataGrip - The Cross-Platform IDE for Databases and SQL - DataGrip, database IDE that is tailored to suit the specific needs of professional SQL developers.
  • phpMyAdmin is a free software tool written in PHP, intended to handle the administration of MySQL over the Web. phpMyAdmin supports a wide range of operations on MySQL and MariaDB. Frequently used operations (managing databases, tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc) can be performed via the user interface, while you still have the ability to directly execute any SQL statement.6

1 Relational database. (2017, September 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:51, September 9, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Relational_database&oldid=798748067
2 Wikipedia contributors. (2018, October 12). SQL. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:22, October 13, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SQL&oldid=863711080
4 Wikipedia contributors. (2018, August 21). Edgar F. Codd. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:36, November 9, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edgar_F._Codd&oldid=855915803
5 Wikipedia contributors. (2018, July 19). Joe Celko. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:23, November 9, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joe_Celko&oldid=850988334

Last edited by MichaelAlber .
Page last modified on Tuesday October 4, 2022 08:57:12 PDT.

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