Linux is the world’s largest and most pervasive open source software project in the history of computing.


Linux Linux is the world’s largest and most pervasive open source software project in the history of computing. The Linux kernel is the largest component of the Linux operating system and is charged with managing the hardware, running user programs, and maintaining the security and integrity of the whole system. It is this kernel which, after its initial release by Linus Torvalds in 1991, jump-started the development of Linux as a whole.1

  • Linux Certifications : Linux certifications prove that you have the skills to carry out a set of tasks, and employers will look to it for a sense of your competency.
  • Ubuntu : Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux operating system
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux : Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market.
    • CentOS : CentOS Community-driven free software effort focused on delivering a robust open source ecosystem around a Linux platform.
    • Amazon Linux 2 : Amazon Linux 2 is the next generation of Amazon Linux
  • Linux Unix Tools and Commands : Common Linux/Unix Tools and Commands
    • SSH (Secure Shell) : SSH is a software package that enables secure system administration and file transfers over insecure networks.
    • SSH Public Private Key Pair : SSH Public Private Key Pair
    • Bash : Bash is the GNU Project's shell. Bash is the Bourne Again SHell.
    • Zsh : Zsh is a shell designed for interactive use, although it is also a powerful scripting language.
    • Sed Command : On Unix-like operating systems, sed is a stream editor: it filters and transforms text.
    • Linux Users : Linux Users


  • The Linux System Administrator's Guide - An introduction to system administration of a Linux system for novices.
  • Linux System Administration Basics - This guide presents a collection of common issues and useful tips for Linux system administration. Whether you’re new to system administration or have been maintaining systems for some time, we hope this collection of basic Linux commands will help you manage your system from the command line.
  • The Linux Documentation Project - LDP is a loosely-knit team of volunteers who provide documentation for many aspects of Linux. There are several forms of documentation: Guides, HOWTOs, man pages, and FAQs.2
  • The Linux man-pages project documents the Linux kernel and C library interfaces that are employed by user-space programs. With respect to the C library, the primary focus is the GNU C library (glibc), although, where known, documentation of variations on other C libraries available for Linux is also included.


Linux Bible Linux Bible - More than 50 percent new and revised content for today's Linux environment gets you up and running in no time! Linux continues to be an excellent, low-cost alternative to expensive operating systems. Whether you're new to Linux or need a reliable update and reference, this is an excellent resource. Veteran bestselling author Christopher Negus provides a complete tutorial packed with major updates, revisions, and hands-on exercises so that you can confidently start using Linux today. Offers a complete restructure, complete with exercises, to make the book a better learning tool Places a strong focus on the Linux command line tools and can be used with all distributions and versions of Linux Features in-depth coverage of the tools that a power user and a Linux administrator need to get started

This practical learning tool is ideal for anyone eager to set up a new Linux desktop system at home or curious to learn how to manage Linux server systems at work.
Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible -Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application of commands in automating frequently performed functions. This guide includes useful tutorials, and a desk reference value of numerous examples.

The Linux command line allows you to type specific shell commands directly into the system to manipulate files and query system resources. Command line statements can be combined into short programs called shell scripts, a practice increasing in popularity due to its usefulness in automation. This book is a complete guide providing detailed instruction and expert advice working within this aspect of Linux.

Write simple script utilities to automate tasks Understand the shell, and create shell scripts Produce database, e-mail, and web scripts Study scripting examples ranging from basic to advanced Whether used as a tutorial or as a quick reference, this book contains information that every Linux user should know. Why not learn to use the system to its utmost capability? Linux is a robust system with tremendous potential, and Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible opens the door to new possibilities.


How Linux is Built
Revolution OS

Linux Foundation

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to fostering the growth of Linux. Founded in 2000, The Linux Foundation sponsors the work of Linux creator Linus Torvalds and is supported by leading Linux and open source companies and developers from around the world.3

Shell / Terminal

A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command-line user interface. Users direct the operation of the computer by entering commands as text for a command line interpreter to execute, or by creating text scripts of one or more such commands.4

GNOME Terminal is a terminal emulator for the GNOME desktop environment written by Havoc Pennington and others. Terminal emulators allow users to access a UNIX shell while remaining on their graphical desktop.5

Bash is the GNU Project's shell. Bash is the Bourne Again SHell. 6

Zsh is a shell designed for interactive use, although it is also a powerful scripting language. 7


sudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the sudoers file. 8

Desktop Environments

Xfce is a lightweight desktop environment for UNIX-like operating systems. It aims to be fast and low on system resources, while still being visually appealing and user friendly.

GNOME is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems. GNOME was originally an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project.9

KDE is an international team cooperating on development and distribution of Free, Open Source Software for desktop and portable computing.

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) is a reference describing the conventions used for the layout of a UNIX system. It has been made popular by its use in Linux distributions, but it is used by other UNIX variants as well.10

The following directories, or symbolic links to directories, are required in /.

binEssential command binaries
bootStatic files of the boot loader
devDevice files
etcHost-specific system configuration
libEssential shared libraries and kernel modules
mediaMount point for removable media
mntMount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily
optAdd-on application software packages
runData relevant to running processes
sbinEssential system binaries
srvData for services provided by this system
tmpTemporary files
usrSecondary hierarchy
varVariable data

4 Unix shell. (2017, August 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:27, October 28, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unix_shell&oldid=794379349
5 GNOME Terminal. (2017, May 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23:29, October 28, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=GNOME_Terminal&oldid=779012066
9 Wikipedia contributors. (2020, May 1). GNOME. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:33, May 2, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=GNOME&oldid=954212998

Last edited by MichaelAlber .
Page last modified on Wednesday July 13, 2022 06:58:07 PDT.

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